Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research

BRIEF REVIEW
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39--41

Justifying the inclusion of audience response system for the delivery of medical education


Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava1, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava2,  
1 Department of Community Medicine, Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth–Deemed to be University, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Didactic lectures have been acknowledged as one of the most important aspects of teaching-learning in the field of medical education. In general, a traditional didactic lecture tends to facilitate passive learning, wherein the students just receive the information provided by the teacher, in the absence of any sort of active engagement. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine and a total of four studies similar to the current study objectives were selected based on the suitability with the current review objectives. The audience response system has been looked upon as a tool to improve the overall effectiveness of the didactic lectures in classroom settings. In this method, the teacher can engage the large group of medical students by including questions during the session and thereby improve the amount of interaction. In conclusion, the audience response system is an effective approach to improve the overall learning in and facilitates the transition from passive to active learning in the medical college set up. Moreover, the system encourages collaboration between teacher and student and active engagement of students, which makes it extremely useful.



How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Justifying the inclusion of audience response system for the delivery of medical education.Muller J Med Sci Res 2021;12:39-41


How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Justifying the inclusion of audience response system for the delivery of medical education. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 22 ];12:39-41
Available from: https://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2021/12/1/39/325480


Full Text



 Introduction



Didactic lectures have been acknowledged as one of the most important aspects of teaching-learning in the field of medical education.[1] Even though small group teaching sessions have been encouraged to ensure effective learning, still didactic lectures continue to be widely adopted by the faculty members across medical institutions. In general, a traditional didactic lecture tends to facilitate passive learning, wherein the students just receive the information provided by the teacher, in the absence of any sort of active engagement.[1],[2] It has been proven that a student is expected to recall information better from a session which is interactive, makes the learner to actively engage, and is not something which runs for a long period in a monotonous fashion.[1],[2]

 Methods



An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine. Relevant research articles focusing on the use of the audience response system in medical education in the 2006–2020 periods were included in the review. A total of four studies similar to the current study objectives were identified and all were selected based on the suitability with the objectives of the current review. Keywords used in the search include audience response system and medical education. The collected information is presented under the following sub-headings, namely audience response system, applications of the audience response system, challenges in implementation of the audience response system, lessons from the field, implications for practice, and implications for research.

 Audience Response System



In fact, a wide range of interactive teaching-learning methods and tools have been employed by the faculty members to ensure effective and deep learning among medical students.[2] The audience response system has been looked upon as a tool to improve the overall effectiveness of the didactic lectures in classroom settings. In this method, the teacher can engage the large group of medical students by including questions during the session and thereby improve the amount of interaction.[2],[3] The incorporated questions tend to be multiple-choice and the students are asked to select their response by using the wireless keypads assigned to individual students. The selected options are displayed to all the students in real-time in the graphical form (histogram), and the teachers can give students an immediate feedback to students in an anonymous and nonthreatening way.[1],[2],[3]

 Applications of the Audience Response System



The response obtained gives a feedback to the teacher as well, which they can utilize to reinforce the concepts or topics that have not been understood well by the students.[1] If required, the teachers can use this system for quiz sessions and award points for every correct answer. The teachers can also obtain feedback from the students regarding their session through a set of questions (Kirkpatrick level 1 evaluation) and based on the responses obtained can improve their teaching skills for subsequent sessions. Moreover, the teachers can conduct a pretest using this system to assess the knowledge of the class about the topic and then after the session, perform a posttest to assess the changes in the knowledge about the topic (Kirkpatrick level 2 evaluation). The teachers can also make the learning joyful by adding some fun questions (as a set-induction or in between the session) and thus make students enjoy the overall learning process.[2],[3]

Some of the audience response systems also give the provision to the students to type their answers briefly while others system gives a platform to students to interact with the teacher on one-to-one basis.[3],[4] Further, the system has a provision to identify the response given by an individual student and discuss with them once the students become comfortable. Once the students get adapted to the system, the teachers can move to the higher level of questions in Bloom's Taxonomy and put forth those questions which require critical thinking and clinical reasoning.[1],[3] The entire system is extremely useful as it encourages the involvement of each and every student, improves attentiveness, encourages better retention of knowledge, gives an opportunity for all types of learners (like shy or under-confident) to participate in the process without having the fear of their colleagues, and is a useful modality to assess the understanding of the students.[1],[2],[3]

 Challenges in Implementation of Audience Response System



Even though the system is extremely useful and it can be applied in different ways by the teachers in medical colleges, there are some challenges which determine its successful introduction or implementation. These challenges predominantly are with reference to the cost involved in buying the equipment, technical support in setting up the system in the institution, and maintenance and repair of devices.[2],[3] However, these are minor constraints and can be easily overcome by a supporting administration.

 Lessons from the Field



At Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, a constituent unit of the Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Puducherry, the audience response system (clickers) has been used in the process of training and teaching-learning. These clickers have been employed in multiple faculty development programs involving both internal (namely Revised Basic Course Workshop, Competency-based assessment, critical appraisal of research articles, and workshops on evidence-based medicine) and external faculty members (namely MedXpert, Postgraduate-MedExcel Program, and workshop on evidence-based medicine), organized by the Medical Education Unit and the Institute Research Council. In addition, the Medical Education Unit of the institution, under the ambit of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Puducherry joined hands with Partners Medical International, Boston, and was involved in carrying out an interactive teaching-learning session, involving the use of audience response system for the medical students from the first professional year.[4]

 Implications for Practice



The administrators or the management of private medical institutions should give a genuine thought toward ensuring the implementation of audience response system within their settings. Although, it will require some investment at the start along with some form of technical support, nevertheless, once the initial hiccups are done with, the response system has multiple benefits to over. The Medical Education Unit can be roped in for the capacity-building sessions and training of the faculty members about the basics of audience response system and the settings in which it can be used. The very fact that the use of audience response system, keeps the learner engaged in the session, and that it provides immediate feedback to them about their performance makes it a worth investment in all settings.

 Implication for Research



Even though the use of audience response system is much established in a number of fields, it is still finding its utility in the field of medical education delivery. The number of studies done with regard to the use of audience response system in medical education is very less, and we need more evidence regarding their application in different stages of professional training. This creates ample amount of scope for the medical teachers to not only use audience response system for teaching-learning but also explore its utility in improving the understanding and grasp of the taught topics, when compared with the conventional large group or small group teaching sessions.

 Conclusion



The audience response system is an effective approach to improve the overall learning in and facilitates the transition from passive to active learning in the medical college set-up. Moreover, the system encourages collaboration between teacher and student and active engagement of students, which makes it extremely useful.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Jensen JV, Ostergaard D, Faxholt AK. Good experiences with an audience response system used in medical education. Dan Med Bull 2011;58:A4333.
2Fujikura T, Takeshita T, Homma H, Adachi K, Miyake K, Kudo M, et al. Team-based learning using an audience response system: A possible new strategy for interactive medical education. J Nippon Med Sch 2013;80:63-9.
3Streeter JL, Rybicki FJ. A novel standard-compliant audience response system for medical education. Radiographics 2006;26:1243-9.
4Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Structured framework for organizing an effective interactive teaching-learning session for medical students. Res Dev Med Educ 2019;8:63-4.