Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research

: 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 100--103

Evolution of refractive surgeries

Madhurima K Nayak 
 Ophthalmologist, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Madhurima K Nayak
B-9, KMC Staff Quarters, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore, Karnataka

The use of surgical procedures to correct refractive errors of the eye has come a long way. The two main types are corneal procedures and intraocular procedures. Corneal procedures have evolved from thermokeratoplasty, keratotomies, epikeratoplasty, laser ablation, conductive keratoplasty, and collagen cross-linking. Intraocular procedures involve phakic intraocular lens (IOL), toric IOL, refractive lens exchange, and accommodating IOLs. Various physicists and ophthalmologists have played a role in this saga. From the idea of using thermal energy to shrink corneal tissue to using femtosecond laser, this article highlights the important landmarks in the history of evolution of refractive surgeries. Refractive surgeries form an ever-growing specialty of ophthalmology with addition of novel techniques with every quantum of time.

How to cite this article:
Nayak MK. Evolution of refractive surgeries.Muller J Med Sci Res 2017;8:100-103

How to cite this URL:
Nayak MK. Evolution of refractive surgeries. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jan 27 ];8:100-103
Available from:;year=2017;volume=8;issue=2;spage=100;epage=103;aulast=Nayak;type=0