Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts 78

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 116

COVID-19, casino, brothel, illegal activity, and disease control

1 Private Academic Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication10-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip
Private Academic Consultant, 111 Bangkok 122 Bangkok 103300
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_51_22

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. COVID-19, casino, brothel, illegal activity, and disease control. Muller J Med Sci Res 2022;13:116

How to cite this URL:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. COVID-19, casino, brothel, illegal activity, and disease control. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 May 28];13:116. Available from: https://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2022/13/2/116/367410

Dear Editor,

COVID-19 is a problem that still requires international collaboration for disease control. The rapid spread of disease occurs worldwide. The spreading of disease from a common place is an important consideration. There are many common places, with crowded environment, that can promote disease spreading (such as religious place and sport stadium).[1],[2] The disease control focusing on crowded place is generally done. However, the failure for controlling might occur in case of illegal activity with crowdedness. Indeed, there are many illegal activities that can result in disease spreading such as illegal international border crossing via illegal natural border tract. The example scenario is the reemergence of COVID-19 in an Indochina country due to illegal immigration of a group of female entertainment venue workers. The group contributes to 0.17% of overall local accumulated COVID-19 cases. Some places might also be illegal due to local laws such as casino and brothel. Due to illegal background, it is not possible to have legal public health control in that site. In fact, the illegal activity during COVID-19 pandemic is a basic consideration. The online gambling activity is increased during COVID-19 pandemic.[3],[4] Focusing on brothel, sex tourism is confirmed as risk behavior for COVID spreading.[5] In fact, the sex worker/prostitute is usually an underprivileged group who get little support during the outbreak.[6]

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Wuhan seafood market, diamond princess cruise, and daegu shincheonji church of Jesus: Important places in the timeline of coronavirus disease-19 outbreak. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2020;13:200-1.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
Sookaromdee P, Wiwanitkit V. Sport stadium as spreading source of COVID-19. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020;60:806.  Back to cited text no. 2
Auer M, Malischnig D, Griffiths MD. Gambling before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among European regular sports bettors: An empirical study using behavioral tracking data. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020;1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00327-8. Online ahead of print.  Back to cited text no. 3
Király O, Potenza MN, Stein DJ, King DL, Hodgins DC, Saunders JB, et al. Preventing problematic internet use during the COVID-19 pandemic: Consensus guidance. Compr Psychiatry 2020;100:152180.  Back to cited text no. 4
Hillis A, Leavey C, Kewley S, Church S, Van Hout MC. Sex tourism, disease migration and COVID-19: Lessons learnt and best practices moving forward. J Travel Med 2020;27:taaa144.  Back to cited text no. 5
Iversen J, Sabin K, Chang J, Morgan Thomas R, Prestage G, Strathdee SA, et al. COVID-19, HIV and key populations: Cross-cutting issues and the need for population-specific responses. J Int AIDS Soc 2020;23:e25632.  Back to cited text no. 6


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded43    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal