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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 56-58

Understanding the significance of patient safety and designing a novel curriculum using Kern's six-step approach


1 Department of Community Medicine, Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth–Deemed to be University, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission22-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance16-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication03-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_15_21

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  Abstract 


The branch of medicine and provision of clinical care is quite complex and challenging owing to the involvement of a number of stakeholders and parameters. The available global estimates suggest that the incidence of adverse events is one the rise and it has been identified as one among the 10 most frequent reasons for death and disability worldwide. Considering that significant developments have been made in modern medicine, it is quite unacceptable. The ideal and cost-effective approach that is expected to make it as a long-term behavior among the future generation of doctors, is by exposing the undergraduate medical students to patient safety curriculum during their training period. At present, the need of the hour is to design a comprehensive patient safety curriculum and as it is a novel topic, we can adopt Kern's six-step approach for the same. In conclusion, patient safety is an integral aspect of clinical medicine and being a health care professional, it is our primary responsibility to not only deliver quality assured care but also take care of patient safety. Thus, it is high time that steps are taken at the medical college level to design a formal patient safety curriculum and then implement the same in collaboration with the Curriculum Committee and the Medical Education Unit.

Keywords: Curriculum, patient safety, undergraduate medical education


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Understanding the significance of patient safety and designing a novel curriculum using Kern's six-step approach. Muller J Med Sci Res 2021;12:56-8

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Understanding the significance of patient safety and designing a novel curriculum using Kern's six-step approach. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 7];12:56-8. Available from: https://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2021/12/1/56/325475




  Introduction Top


The branch of medicine and provision of clinical care is quite complex and challenging owing to the involvement of a number of stakeholders (namely, health care professionals, patients and their caregivers, logistics, hospital as a system, etc.) and parameters (namely, the workload, prolonged duty hours, associated stress, etc.).[1] The presence of all these factors makes the situation quite challenging and often prone to errors due to the very fact that performance differs in real settings as compared to simulated or academic settings.[1],[2] The available global estimates suggest that the incidence of adverse events is one the rise and it has been identified as one among the 10 most frequent reasons for death and disability worldwide.[3] Another important dimension of these errors is that they account for a massive financial load on the patient and their caregivers, while from the health sector perspective, there is an added burden on them.[1],[2],[3]


  Ground Reality Top


Considering that significant developments have been made in modern medicine, it is quite unacceptable and at the same time justifies the need that there has to be awareness about the same among the healthcare professionals.[2],[4] This awareness is quite essential as then only the health professionals will realize that it is quite common and we have to learn from our mistakes and not let it happen in the future.[1],[2] There is always an option to sensitize the health team in the hospitals about the same, especially with regard to the standard operating procedures and the do's and don'ts to minimize patient errors, but the impact of these measures is questionable.


  Patient Safety Curriculum Top


The ideal and cost-effective approach that is expected to make it as a long-term behavior among the future generation of doctors, is by exposing the undergraduate medical students to patient safety curriculum during their training period.[2],[5] The available trends on patient safety curriculum across the globe suggest that in most of medical colleges' patient safety is yet to find a place.[4],[5] Either it is being covered in isolation with some theory sessions or not at all, and this is not expected to make the situation better. The patient safety curriculum has to be formally designed, introduced and integrated throughout the training period, including internship with a predominant focus toward skills required for patient safety. [4],[5],[6]


  Kern's Six-Step Approach for Designing the Curriculum Top


At present, the need of the hour is to design a comprehensive patient safety curriculum and as it is a novel topic, we can adopt Kern's six-step approach for the same.[7] The process of designing curriculum starts with the identification of the problem and the general needs assessment. Considering the magnitude and the geographical distribution of the problem, it is a topic that needs definite consideration, not only for the sake of medical education but also for improving the quality of the health care delivered.[7] The next step will be to critically determine the targeted needs assessment of the undergraduate medical students, as it would not be possible to cover everything within the existing tightly-packed schedule.[2],[6]

The subsequent step will be to set the goals (like improving patient outcomes) of the curriculum and the learning objectives that need to be achieved to accomplish the set goals.[7] After the objectives have been formulated, we have to decide about the educational strategies that should be employed to teach different aspects of the patient safety curriculum.[7],[8] The teaching-learning methods can vary from a theory session to a small group teaching activity to practical sessions and even bedside teaching and logbook maintenance. The further step will be to design the plan of implementation of the proposed curriculum, in terms of when the sessions will be taken and how they will be taken, including during the period of internship. [7],[8],[9]

The final step will be to evaluate the patient safety curriculum and this can be done by obtaining feedback from the stakeholders, especially students and teachers.[4],[5] Based on the received feedback, the curriculum can be appropriately modified. It is always a positive practice to carry out curriculum mapping so that all the topics are covered based on a schedule and even assessed to measure the extent of learning.[5],[6],[7],[8] In the designed curriculum emphasis should be given toward covering basics about patient safety, strategies to ensure patient safety, medication safety, safety during invasive procedures, ensuring patient safety through better communication skills, and trust among the members of the health team, etc.[10] We can totally understand that many colleges have not yet given priority to patient safety, but it is high time to give it due consideration and take active steps.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]


  Conclusion Top


Patient safety is an integral aspect of clinical medicine and being a health care professional, it is our primary responsibility to not only deliver quality assured care but also take care of patient safety. Thus, it is high time that steps are taken at the medical college level to design a formal patient safety curriculum and then implement the same in collaboration with the Curriculum Committee and the Medical Education Unit.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jain CC, Aiyer MK, Murphy E, Alper EA, Durning S, Aldag J, et al. A National assessment on patient safety curricula in undergraduate medical education: Results from the 2012 clerkship directors in internal medicine survey. J Patient Saf 2020;16:14-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Misbah S, Mahboob U. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: A qualitative case study. J Educ Eval Health Prof 2017;14:35.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World Health Organization. Patient Safety-Key Facts. World Health Organization; 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/patient-safety. [Last acessed on 2021 Apr 22].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hoffmann N, Kubitz JC, Goetz AE, Beckers SK. Patient safety in undergraduate medical education: Implementation of the topic in the anaesthesiology core curriculum at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. GMS J Med Educ 2019;36:Doc12.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kiesewetter J, Gutmann J, Drossard S, Gurrea Salas D, Prodinger W, Mc Dermott F, et al. The learning objective catalogue for patient safety in undergraduate medical education–A position statement of the committee for patient safety and error management of the german association for medical education. GMS J Med Educ 2016;33:Doc10.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Suleiman AM, Amarasinghe D, Kathuria P, Vandel J, Holloway J, Elkin K, et al. Incorporating patient safety into early undergraduate medical education: Teaching medical students to perform surgical time outs during anatomy. BMJ Open Qual 2021;10:e001229.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Robertson AC, Fowler LC, Niconchuk J, Kreger M, Rickerson E, Sadovnikoff N, et al. Application of Kern's 6-Step approach in the development of a novel anesthesiology curriculum for perioperative code status and goals of care discussions. J Educ Perioper Med 2019;21:E634.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Myung SJ, Shin JS, Kim JH, Roh H, Kim Y, Kim J, et al. The patient safety curriculum for undergraduate medical students as a first step toward improving patient safety. J Surg Educ 2012;69:659-64.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nie Y, Li L, Duan Y, Chen P, Barraclough BH, Zhang M, et al. Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: A systematic review. BMC Med Educ 2011;11:33.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
World Health Organization. World Alliance for Patient Safety-WHO Patient Safety Curriculum Guide for Medical Schools. Geneva: World Health Organization press; 2009. p. 1-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
Ground Reality
Patient Safety C...
Kern's Six-S...
Conclusion
References

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