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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-5

Epidemiological trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma – An institutional study


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, D Y Patil University School of Dentistry, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, D Y Patil University School of Dentistry, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Treville Pereira
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, D Y Patil University School of Dentistry, Sector 7, Nerul, Navi Mumbai - 400 706, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_5_21

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an incidence rate that varies widely by geographic location. Even within one geographic location, the incidence varies among groups categorized by age, gender or race. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the trends in the age, gender, habits, sites involved and the histopathological grading which are given to patients diagnosed with OSCC in D.Y. Patil University School of Dentistry, Navi MumbaI. Materials and Methods: The study covered a period from July 2003 to July 2019. OSCC cases were retrospectively analysed for age, gender, habit, site of the lesion and histopathological grading given to patients diagnosed with OSCC. Charts were made, analysis was done and the results were formulated. Correlation was also done comparing gender vs habit, gender vs site of the lesion and gender vs histopathological grading given to the OSCC cases to check for statistical significance. Results: The study revealed a male to female ratio of ~ 0.7 : 0.3 with the largest number of OSCCs developing in the fourth and sixth decades of life. Overall, Buccal Mucosa (40%) was the most common site involved while floor of the mouth (2.8%) showed the least incidence. Other sites involved were gingiva (34%), tongue (12%), palate (4%) and labial mucosa (3%) respectively. Smokeless tobacco habit was more prevalent than smoking tobacco in both men as well as women. We even observed that 58% of cases were diagnosed with Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC), 39% with Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (MDSCC) and 2% with Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC). Correlation between gender vs habit, gender vs site of the lesion and gender vs histopathological grading of OSCC was done using chi square test and all the three parameters turned out to be statistically significant. Conclusion: An alarming rise in the number of OSCC cases over the years was observed from this 15-year retrospective study. Measures must be taken to make people aware about the ill effects of tobacco and the prolonged usage & the availability of treatment options should be made known to the affected individuals. Race, ethnicity and age cannot be altered; however, lifestyle behaviour such as use of tobacco and alcohol are amenable to change.


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